Italy: risk on, risk off?

Wednesday October 3: Five things the markets are talking about

European markets have so far shrugged off losses in Asia to post gains this morning amid hopes that Italy’s budget deficit could be lowered, but concerns about the country’s debt and budget plans remain.

The EUR (€1.1573) has rallied from yesterday’s six-week lows on hopes that Italy’s draft budget plan will pledge to cut the deficit to +2% in 2021, revising the government’s initial proposal. Italian bonds have surged after four-days of selling.

At least for the time being, the lack of contagion in the rest of the eurozone bond market from the rise in Italian government bonds shows that the budget talks are still perceived as a local issue, and this despite, Italy’s +2.4% deficit plan is a significant deviation from previous commitments.

Elsewhere, U.S Treasury yields remain atop of their recent highs after Fed Chair Powell yesterday welcomed wage growth, but expressed confidence that low unemployment would not support inflation that would require aggressive tightening.

Later this morning, U.K PM Theresa May will be speaking at the Tory party’s annual conference. Expect Brexit rhetoric to affect a hypersensitive sterling.

1. Stocks mixed results

In Japan, equities came under pressure overnight as automakers fell on a sharp decline in U.S new car sales last month and while financials retreated mostly on profit taking. The Nikkei share average lost -0.7%, though it was still holding at 27-year highs. The broader Topix fell -1.2%.

Down-under, Aussie stocks rallied from strong gains in resource-related stocks overnight, helped by higher gold and metal prices, while financials ended lower despite earlier gains. The S&P/ASX 200 index rose +0.3% at the close of trade. The benchmark fell -0.8% on Tuesday.

Note: Both China and S. Korea were closed for a holiday.

In Hong Kong, stocks fell for a second consecutive day, with investors staying on the sidelines preferring to look for hints on policy direction from China. The Hang Seng Index was down -0.52%.

In Europe, regional bourses have opened higher across the board. Investor risk sentiment has improved after Italian press reports new budget plans (see below). The financial and Telecom sector are the best performers, while the material sector is underperforming. Germany is closed for a holiday.

U.S stocks are set to open in the ‘black’ (+0.2%).

Indices: Stoxx600 +0.3% at 383.2, FTSE +0.2% at 7,487, DAX closed, CAC-40 +0.2% at 5,476, IBEX-35 +0.1% at 9,314, FTSE MIB +0.3% at 20,618, SMI +0.6% at 9,145, S&P 500 Futures +0.2%

2. Oil trades atop of its four-year highs

Oil trades atop of its four-year highs this morning, supported by expectations that U.S sanctions on Iran will tighten supply and strain the ability of the Saudi’s and other producers to pump more.

Brent crude is up +38c at +$85.18 a barrel. It reached +$85.45 on Monday, its highest level since November 2014. U.S crude (WTI) is up +24c at +$75.47.

Crude exports from Iran, OPEC’s third-largest producer, are already falling as the U.S sanctions kick in on November 4 deters buyers.

A recent survey of OPEC production found Iranian output in September fell by -100K bpd, while production from the group as a whole rose by +90K bpd from August.

Note: Crude prices have roughly tripled from lows hit in January 2016 after the OPEC and Russia cut output.

OPEC has so far ruled out any further production increase, beyond delivering the boost agreed in June, despite prices rallying further and more pressure from Trump.

Ahead of the U.S open, gold prices have edged a tad higher in the Euro session after gaining over +1% yesterday, supported by safe-haven demand as Italy’s budget plan sets it on course for a potential clash with the E.U. Spot gold is up +0.1% at +$1,203.31, while U.S gold futures are up +0.1% to +$1,207.06 an ounce.

3. Italian yields fall

In Europe, Italian bonds are rallying as some of the yesterday’s worries have eased on signs that Rome is open to cutting its budget deficits and debt in coming years.

Note: There are reports that the Italian deficit would fall to +2.2% of GDP in 2020 and to +2% in 2021 from the +2.4% earlier outlined.

Italian 2-year BTP yields have fallen -21 bps to +1.381%

In Germany, the 10-year Bund yields trade higher, indicating less investor appetite for safe havens amid the Italian turmoil. The 10-year Bund yield is trading +2 bps higher at +0.45%, while the 10-year BTP yield is trading -8 bps lower at +3.34%.

Elsewhere, the yield on U.S 10-year Treasuries has gained +1 bps to +3.07%.

4. TRY falls on inflation data

The Turkish lira is under pressure after data this morning showed annual Turkish inflation jumped to +24.52% in September from +17.90% in August, lifting USD/TRY to a five-day high of $6.0912.

Note: The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (CBRT) has been reluctant in the past to hike rates to curb inflation, especially since President Erdogan has previously expressed a preference for lower interest rates.

The EUR (€1.1565) continues to be driven by the Italian budget projections, this time going up on reports that Italy may not pencil in another 2.4% deficit-to-GDP projection for 2020 and 2021.

Sterling (£1.3004) is again trading atop of the psychological £1.30 handle. Expect the pound to remain hypersensitive to Brexit comments from PM Theresa May when she addresses party members at the Conservative party conference this morning.

5. Eurozone retail sales fall for second consecutive month

Data this morning showed Eurozone retail sales fell for a second straight month in August, which may suggest that that economic growth has yet to rebound significantly from a slowdown in H1.

Eurostat reported retail sales across the 19-countries that use the ‘single’ unit was -0.2% lower in August than in July, although +1.8% up on the same month of 2017.

Last year, a surge in exports drove eurozone economic growth, but a weakening in overseas sales has been behind a loss of momentum this year. That has left the economy more reliant on household spending to drive the expansion, and falling retail sales are a major concern.

Note: Eurostat also cut its estimate for July to -0.6%, having previously calculated that sales fell by -0.2%.

Digging deeper, the drop in sales comes despite a fall in eurozone unemployment and a pickup in wage growth. But energy prices have risen more sharply over recent months, eating into the income available to spend on other goods and services.

Forex heatmap

Risk sentiment is shifting and headline-driven

Tuesday Oct 2: Five things the markets are talking about

Capital markets are in a sombre mood as a number of reasons for caution come to the fore.

Brexit rhetoric and the Italian government’s fiscal plans top the agenda, followed closely by trade deals and tariffs and political drama in Washington.

Amid the risk-off mood the ‘big’ dollar again has found support against G10 pairs. Euro stocks and U.S futures are currently following Asian declines, as Treasuries and bund prices advance.

The EUR (€1.1517) remains under pressure for a fifth consecutive day, pressured by remarks from Italy’s Deputy PM Luigi Di Maio that they will not change its budget deficit targets despite pressure from Brussels and its E.U partners.

Elsewhere, the pound (£1.2960) succumbs to Brexit rhetoric at the Conservative Party annual conference.

On tap: Fed Chair Powell is due to speak (12:45 pm EDT) about the outlook for employment and inflation at the National Association for Business Economics Annual Meeting, in Boston. Audience questions expected.

1. Stocks mostly see ‘red’

Asian equity markets traded generally lower as China remains on holiday, with Japan being the exception.

In Japan, the Nikkei edged up to a fresh 27-year high overnight, building on recent strength thanks to upbeat earnings hopes, mostly on the back of a weaker yen. The Nikkei share average ended +0.1% higher, while the broader Topix was up +0.3%.

Down-under, Aussie shares closed at their lowest in more than three-months overnight as financial stocks extended losses following a Royal Commission interim report on the sector. The S&P/ASX 200 index fell -0.8%, after dropping -0.6% on Monday. In S. Korea, stocks saw their worst day in nearly two-months on heightened U.S-China tensions. The Kospi fell -1.25%, marking its biggest percentage loss since August 13.

In Hong Kong, stocks also fell overnight on signs of weakness in China’s manufacturing sector. Resuming trade after a public holiday yesterday, the benchmark Hang Seng Index was down -1.64%.

In Europe, regional bourses open down across the board with Italy at the fore, as concerns over Italian finances keeps risk sentiment depressed. Four year high Brent prices are supporting energy stocks. The financial sector remains the worst performer.

U.S stocks are set to open in the ‘red’ (-0.4%).

Indices: Stoxx50 -1.2% at 3,374, FTSE -1.1% at 7,447, DAX -1.0% at 12,220, CAC-40 -1.1% at 5,449, IBEX-35 -1.2% at 9,297, FTSE MIB -1.4% at 20,324, SMI -0.7% at 9,060, S&P 500 Futures -0.4%

2. U.S oil hits four-year peak ahead of sanctions on Iran, gold higher

Earlier this morning, U.S oil prices hit their highest level since November 2014, while Brent crude trades atop of yesterday’s four-year high print, as markets prepare for tighter supply once U.S sanctions against Iran begin to hit in November.

U.S West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude futures are at +$75.90 a barrel – WTI has rallied +18% since mid-August, while Brent crude oil futures are at +$85.28 per barrel, up +30c, or +0.4%, from Monday’s close. Brent has risen by more than +20% from its lows in August.

Market sentiment also got a boost from yesterday’s announcement of a “new” trilateral pact between the U.S, Mexico and Canada (USMCA), saving a +$1.2T a year open-trade zone that had been on the verge of collapse.

Iran’s oil industry, which at its most recent peak this year, supplied +3% of the world’s almost +100M barrels of daily consumption. U.S sanctions are set to start on Nov. 4.

Ahead of the U.S open, gold prices have found some support as risk appetite wanes, one day after getting a boost from the USMCA deal. Spot gold is up +0.5% at +$1,193.80, after declining about -0.3% in yesterday’s session. U.S gold futures are +0.5% higher at +$1,197.60 an ounce.

3. BTP/Bund yield gap at its widest in five-years

The Italian/German 10-year bond yield spread trades atop of its five-year highs as eurozone officials warned of a return to crisis days and an Italian lawmaker said most of Italy’s problems would be solved if it returned to its own currency.

As Italian bond yields surged +11-20 bps, the yield premium investors demand to hold Italian paper over German debt shot higher. The BTP/Bund 10-year bond yield gap has widened out to +302 bps.

Note: Bunds remain exposed to opposing forces, with safe-haven runs triggered by Italy jitters pushing German yields lower, but expectations of rate raises by the ECB next year is pointing to higher Bund yields.

The yield on U.S 10’s has decreased -2 bps to +3.06%. In Germany, the 10-year Bund yield has decreased -3 bps to +0.44%, the lowest in almost three weeks, while Italy’s 10-year yield has gained +12 bps to +3.421%, the highest in more than four-years.

4. Pound under pressure

As the market waits for PM May’s new Brexit draft proposal on the Irish border, uncertainties continue to threaten sterling (£1.2966) and this morning’s weaker construction PMI survey has caused it to fall further. Sterling fell to a three-week low of £1.2957, from 1.2987 beforehand, after data showed construction PMI fell to 52.1 in September from 52.9 in August, signalling “the weakest upturn in output for six-months.”

The EUR (€1.1517) continues to decline falling over -0.4% against the U.S dollar and -0.6% against the Yen (€130.98) on Italian Budget uncertainty.

Down-under, AUD/USD (A$0.7173 down -0.77%) has retraced earlier gains after the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) left rates on hold (see below), while the NZD/USD has declined after yesterday’s NZIER Business Confidence (-30 vs. -20) fell to the lowest level in nine-years.

5. RBA rate statement

It was as expected from the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), leaving the key policy rate at record lows (+1.5%) and traders with the impression that the RBA plans to remain sidelined for some time.

Nevertheless, Governor Lowes’s big concerns remain low wage growth and higher debt levels – a potential combo that could dissuade consumer spending and in turn ‘slows’ the country’s economy.

However, global expansion and recent domestic growth are positives and the RBA continues to expect GDP growth of more than +3% through 2019 and for the unemployment to drift down towards +5% over time.

Forex heatmap

Strong Dollar Awaits Jobs Report to Validate Further Fed Hikes

The US dollar is mixed against major pairs on Friday. The dollar gained against the JPY, EUR, GBP and CHF but depreciated against the commodity pairs (CAD, AUD and NZD).

Fundamental data in the US supported the dollar: the Fed delivered its anticipated third rate hike of 2018, the final GDP for the second quarter was 4.2 percent. Fed Chair Powell’s speech and press conference after the FOMC was a big factor in the rise of the dollar after the market had already priced in the 25 basis points lift to interest rates. Mr Powell will speak next week on Tuesday, October 2nd on the topic of employment and inflation. This will officially kick off jobs week in the US.

The main event will be the release of the biggest economic indicator on Friday, October 5 at 8:30 am when the U.S. non farm payrolls (NFP) is published.

  • US manufacturing and service PMIs could signal growth slowdown
  • UK leading indicators expected to remain flat
  • US NFP report to show economy added 190,000 jobs

Euro Hit by Political Turmoil and Inflation Softness

The EUR/USD lost 0.26 percent on Friday. The single currency is trading at 1.1610 and accumulated 1.16 percent in losses during the week. A higher than predicted Italian budget for 2019 at 2.4 percent and softer core inflation in the eurozone put downward pressure on the currency.



European stock markets were hit by the news as political turmoil once again threatens the European Union.

The other shoe dropped when inflation slowed down in the Eurozone in the same week that the U.S. Federal Reserve hiked rates and was optimistic about economic growth in the US.

The monetary policy divergence between the Fed and other major central banks was clear this week as fundamentals back the US policy makers, while questions remain on how effective other policy makers around the world have been.

Loonie Rises as GDP Data Validates October Rate Hike

The Canadian dollar rose on Friday after the monthly gross domestic product (GDP) beat the forecast with a 0.2 percent gain. The loonie is up almost 1 percent on the final day of the trading week. The currency is still showing a weekly loss against the greenback as NAFTA uncertainty and the U.S. Federal Reserve rate announcement put downward pressure.

The rise today comes with higher expectations of a Canadian interest rate lift in October. The Bank of Canada (BoC) held rates in September ahead of a highly anticipated Fed rate hike in September that came to pass. The US central bank has forecasted another rate hike in 2018 and 2 or 3 more next year as part of its economic projections published Wednesday.


usdcad Canadian dollar graph, September 28, 2018

BoC Governor Stephen Poloz spoke on Thursday addressing the rising inflation and Friday’s GDP data point puts a rate hike firmly on the table in the short term.

NAFTA negotiations have not made big inroads as the US met with Canada with the goal of turning two bilateral agreements into a trilateral one.

With a considerable amount of work still to be done in bridging the gap between US and Canada, the US-Mexico agreement will be published tonight with a possibility of leaving the door open for Canada to join.

It is that possibility that has kept the loonie gaining despite the NAFTA train moving without Canada.

Crude Surges as Supply Concerns Push Prices to 4 Year Highs

Oil prices surged on Friday as supply concerns took crude to four year highs. The news that China is cutting back on Iranian oil purchases triggered a rally where Brent and WTI had a 1.40 percent one-day gain. Brent is on track to a 5.34 percent gain during the week with WTI clocking in at 3.66 percent.

The US sanctions against Iran don’t kick into effect until November, but the harsh penalties threatened against those who do have made Iranian crude purchases drop.


West Texas Intermediate graph

China’s Sinopec Corp is slashing its loadings in half to avoid the wrath of Washington. In August Sinopec planned to offer Tehran a lifeline by circumventing the sanctions as it reduced US oil purchases due to the rising trade turmoil between the US and China.

The decision by the Chinese state owned energy company will deal a huge blow to Iran as China is its biggest customer.


West Texas Intermediate graph

The shortfall from Iranian crude sales does not have a short term solution after US Energy Secretary Rick Perry said earlier this week that the US would not tap into its emergency crude reserves to bring prices down.

US President Donald Trump had implied during his UN General Assembly speech that unless the OPEC increase production levels America’s would utilize its position as the largest energy producer in the world.

Gold Gains But US Dollar to Limit Recovery

Gold rose 0.67 percent on Friday but the strength of the US dollar after the U.S. Federal Reserve lifted interest rates this week proved to be too much for the yellow metal that will end up losing 0.49 percent on a weekly basis.

The Fed raised the benchmark rate by 25 basis points and the futures market is pricing in a 78.5 percent probability of a lift in December. Gold traders will look ahead at next week’s manufacturing and service PMIs for more guidance as the US economy continues to grow. Friday’s U.S. non farm payrolls (NFP) will be the final test of the yellow metal.



The US is expected to add 190,000 jobs with average hourly earning rising 0.3 percent. Higher inflation expectations validate the Fed’s forecasts and the market is pricing in a rate hike in December and follow ups in 2019.

Market events to watch this week:

Monday, October 1
4:30am GBP Manufacturing PMI
10:00am USD ISM Manufacturing PMI
Tuesday, October 2
12:30am AUD Cash Rate
12:30am AUD RBA Rate Statement
4:30am GBP Construction PMI
12:45pm USD Fed Chair Powell Speaks
Wednesday, October 3
4:30am GBP Services PMI
8:15am USD ADP Non-Farm Employment Change
10:00am USD ISM Non-Manufacturing PMI
10:30am USD Crude Oil Inventories
Thursday, October 4
9:30pm AUD Retail Sales m/m
Friday, October 5
8:30am CAD Employment Change
8:30am CAD Trade Balance
8:30am USD Average Hourly Earnings m/m
8:30am USD Non-Farm Employment Change

*All times EDT
For a complete list of scheduled events in the forex market visit the MarketPulse Economic Calendar

Look to Fed’s Powell for help

Wednesday September 26: Five things the markets are talking about

Global stocks are trading mixed ahead of today’s FOMC rate decision, with Asian shares closing out higher, while Euro bourses are a tad down as Italy’s budget talks continue to be a source of concern.

The Italian government has until tomorrow to outline its fiscal and economic projections ahead of a budget law discussion due to take place in October. Currently, the markets remains concerned that the government will try to pass a budget that is out of step with E.U rules.

This afternoon, the Fed is expected to raise interest rates by +25 bps to a corridor of +2% to +2.25% as it continues to roll back easy-money policies.

Market attention will focus on the forward guidance, including the new ‘dot plot’ diagram, to gain insight into the plans for 2019 and beyond.

Currently, the U.S dollar trades steady while U.S Treasury yields trade atop of their the seven-year highs reached in May.

Note: Today’s Fed decision (02:00 pm EDT) will be followed by a press conference with Chair Jerome Powell (02:30 pm EDT).

1. Stocks trade mixed ahead of Fed

In Japan, gains overnight lifted the Nikkei to an 8-months high as the index was able to overcome the impact from a number of companies’ stock prices being adjusted lower amid looming dividend payments. The index rallied +0.4%. Again helping was the U.S dollar briefly hitting a two-month high and breaching ¥113.

Down-under, the S&P/ASX 200 was able to squeeze out a slight gain and ended up +0.1% at the close. Energy stocks rose a further +0.9% as oil prices rallied, while materials gained +0.8%. But financials fell -0.6% as the initial report on an alleged industry misconduct looms and health care dropped a fresh -0.7%.

Note: South Korea’s markets were closed for a holiday.

In China, stocks rallied overnight on hopes that global index provider MSCI would consider quadrupling the weighting of Chinese big-caps in its global benchmarks. At the close, the Shanghai Composite index was up +1%, while the blue-chip CSI300 index was up +1.1%.

In Hong Kong, shares followed the region higher on receding trade war fears and high oil prices. The Hang Seng index rose +1.2%, while the China Enterprises Index gained +1.5%.

In Europe, regional bourses remain somewhat muted ahead of the Fed’s rate announcement.

U.S stocks are set to open in the ‘black’ (+0.2%)

Indices: Stoxx50 +0.1% at 3,423, FTSE flat at 7,506, DAX -0.1% at 12,362, CAC-40 +0.2% at 5,489, IBEX-35 flat at 9,492, FTSE MIB -0.1% at 21,644, SMI flat at 9,020, S&P 500 Futures +0.2%

2. Brent trades near four-year high, but U.S crude retreats

While global trade tensions remain a source of investor concern, rising oil prices are taking on a greater importance.

Despite President Trump calling for increased crude output from OPEC, crude prices have been lifted by the pending U.S sanctions on Iran in November.

Producers fear pumping more oil to compensate for lower output from Iran and Venezuela could mark a return of oversupply.

Brent crude is up +10c, or +0.1%, at +$81.87 a barrel, after gaining nearly +1% yesterday. Brent rose on Tuesday to its highest since November 2014 at +$82.55 per barrel.

U.S crude futures (WTI) are down -4c at +$72.24 a barrel. They climbed +0.3% yesterday to close at their highest level since July 11.

U.S data yesterday showed that domestic crude stockpiles unexpectedly climbed last week. API data showed that inventories rose by +2.9M barrels in the week to Sept. 21 to +400M, compared with market expectations for a decrease of -1.3M barrels.

Expect dealers to take their cue from today’s official figures on stockpiles and refinery runs from the U.S Department of Energy’s Information Administration (EIA 10:30 am EDT).

Ahead of the U.S open, gold prices are steady ahead of the Fed’s rate decision. Spot gold is little changed at +$1,200.43 per ounce. It’s been a narrow +$4 range overnight, and even tested key resistance at +$1,200. U.S. gold futures are flat at $1,204.70 an ounce.

3. Italian yields fall on budget talks

Italian bond yields continue to trade under pressure in the run-up to the presentation of Italy’s budget draft, scheduled for tomorrow. A budget deficit below +2% gap (to GDP) is expected to give further support to Italian BTP’s.

This morning, Italian government bond yields have dropped across the curve. Short-dated Italian yields have fallen -10 bps to +0.77%, while Italy’s five- and 10-year BTP yields have dropped -5-7 bps.

Elsewhere, German Bund yields remain just below highs reached yesterday. Germany’s 10-year Bund has opened at around +0.54%, down around -1 bps.

Stateside, the yield on 10-year Treasuries has fallen -1 bps to +3.09%, the largest drop in two-weeks, while in the U.K, the 10-year Gilt yield has also fallen -1 bps to +1.62%.

4. Dollar needs guidance

The ‘big’ dollar is little changed ahead of today’s Fed’s rate decision and has meant little doing for currencies in general (€1.1765, £1.3160 and ¥112.90).

While the Fed’s monetary policy tightening is likely to end next year, investors are trying to figure out if most of the dollar’s strength is behind us.

Later today, the Fed could remove the word “accommodative” from its statement, but consensus thinks this is most unlikely. Even if it does, the U.S dollar may still find it difficult to find support due to its trade and protectionist policies.

Down-under, the Kiwi (NZ$0.6655) bounced higher on an uptick in business confidence.

5. New Zealand business sentiment rallies

Data overnight showed that New Zealand business sentiment lifted this month from a decade low even as firms remained pessimistic overall.

An ANZ Bank survey showed a net +38.3% of respondents expected the Kiwi economy to deteriorate over the year ahead – a previous poll showed +50.3%, which was its lowest reading since 2008.

Last month, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ) said gloomy business confidence was a major risk that could result in firms holding off on investment, dragging on growth and increasing the chances of another cut in official interest rates.

Later today (05:00 pm EDT), the RBNZ is widely expected to hold rates at a record low of +1.75% and signal that it plans to hold them there for an extended period of time.

If in doubt, look to the Fed for direction

Tuesday September 25: Five things the markets are talking about

It’s a return to the drawing board for many investors who are now back online beginning their holiday shortened Asian trading week.

Euro equities are trading mixed following a “get back to basics” Asian session as investors ponder the outlook for global trade and U.S politics.

The U.S dollar continues to hang tough, while stateside, Treasury yields consolidate atop of +3.1% while crude oil trades at a four-year high.

In Europe, Italian bonds rally as the country edges closer to delivering a budget.

Topping investors’ agenda this week is today’s two-day FOMC meeting, along with the Fed’s updated forecasts and the chair’s quarterly press conference (Sep 25-26).

Note: The market is looking for a third +25 bps rate hike and is pricing in another one for December. Investors await Fed chair Powell’s views on trade and tariffs tomorrow.

1. Stocks mixed results

In Japan, the Nikkei rallied for a seventh consecutive session overnight, helped by gains in chip-related stocks that offset weakness in construction equipment manufacturers. The ‘big’ dollar trading through ¥112 also helped to support overall sentiment. The index gained +0.3% to hit its highest print in more than eight-months.

Note: Both Hong Kong and South Korea indexes were closed for holidays on Tuesday.

Down-under, Aussie stocks traded flat overnight as an escalation in Sino-U.S trade tensions hit risk sentiment, while energy stocks rallied on a firmer oil prices. The benchmark dipped -0.1% on Monday.

In China, stock fell on Tuesday in their first trading session after fresh U.S tariffs on +$200B worth of Chinese imports began yesterday. At the close, the Shanghai Composite index was down -0.58%, while the blue-chip CSI300 index was down -1%.

In Europe, in early trade, regional bourses are being supported by stronger commodity prices and optimism over the Italian budget.

U.S stocks are set to open in the ‘black’ (+0.1%).

Indices: Stoxx50 +0.3% at 3,419, FTSE +0.3% at 7,482, DAX +0.2% at 12,373, CAC-40 +0.2% at 5,486, IBEX-35 +0.4% at 9,550, FTSE MIB +0.5% at 21,450, SMI +0.3% at 8,972, S&P 500 Futures +0.1%

2. Oil hits new four-year highs as OPEC resists output rise, gold steady

Crude oil prices remain better bid after Brent hit a fresh four-year high amid looming U.S sanctions against Iran and an apparent reluctance by OPEC and Russia to raise output to offset the expected hit to supply.

With OPEC and Russia having ignored Trump’s twitter pleas to increase production, coupled with U.S sanctions to hit Iran exports in November, should again provide support for oil ‘bulls’ to seek higher price prints.

Brent crude futures are up +30c, or +0.4% from Monday’s close at +$81.69 a barrel, a level not seen since November 2014. U.S West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude futures are at +$72.28 a barrel, up +20c or +0.3% from yesterday’s close.

The U.S from Nov. 4 will target Iran’s oil exports with sanctions, and Trump continues to put pressure on governments and companies around the world to fall in line and cut purchases from Tehran.

Ahead of the U.S open, gold prices trade steady as the market remains somewhat cautious ahead of today’s two-day U.S Fed meeting, which could offer direction on future interest rate hikes. Spot gold is little changed at +$1,199.06 an ounce. U.S gold futures are also steady at +$1,203.70 an ounce.

Note: Gold has fallen -12% since hitting a peak in April against a backdrop of trade disputes and rising U.S interest rates.

3. Italian yields’ fall on budget hopes, Bund yields rally

Italian borrowing costs rally, narrowing the gap with its German counterparts, on signs that Italy’s coalition is likely to reach a compromise over next years budget. The ruling coalition is willing to keep the budget deficit below +2% of GDP.

In contrast, Germany’s Bund yields continue to back-up, trading atop of their four-month highs, a day after ECB chief Mario Draghi pointed to a “vigorous” pick-up in underlying inflation.

In early trade, Italy’s 10-year BTP yield has fallen -9 bps to +2.86%, narrowing the spread over the benchmark German Bund yield to around +232 bps, from around +245 bps late yesterday.

In Germany, the 10-year bund yields has rallied to a four-month high at +0.54%, a day after posting their biggest one-day jump since June.

Elsewhere, the yield on 10-year Treasuries has advanced +1 bps to +3.09%, its highest yield in almost 19-weeks. In the U.K, the 10-year Gilt yield has climbed +1 bps to +1.624%, , the highest in more than seven months.

4. Bitcoin’s pullback quickens

In early trade, BTC has slid to new intraday lows, falling nearly -4% to +$6,400 in the overnight session, moving the cryptocurrency back toward this month’s lows. The BTC ‘bears’ continue to eye the +$6,000 region.

TRY has rallied +6% in the past 24-hrs to $6.1374 on reports that Turkish authorities are sending signals that an American pastor facing terrorism charges could be released next month.

EUR/USD (€1.1762) softened slightly after comments from ECB’s Praet noting that comments from Draghi yesterday were nothing new. The pair fell -30 pips to a low of €1.7133 following the comments.

Note: The ‘single unit’ found support yesterday after ECB President Draghi said there has been a relatively vigorous pick-up in inflation.

5. Swedish PM Lofven ousted in no-confidence vote

Earlier this morning, Swedish PM Stefan Lofven lost a no-confidence vote in parliament and will step down after four-years in power, but with neither major political bloc holding a majority it remained unclear who will form the next government.

Note: Voters delivered a hung parliament in the Sept. 9 election with Lofven’s center-left bloc garnering 144 seats, one more than the center-right opposition Alliance.

SEK is down -0.18% at €10.3374.

Brexit sterling shorts back to July 2016 levels

“Bear” pound speculators hold nearly the same amount of net short positions in sterling as they did in July 2016.

This would suggest that the markets worries about how the Brexit divorce on March 29, 2019 will look, and the uncertainty surrounding it, has got back to levels it was at just after the referendum vote.

According to CFTC latest data, sterling shorts have increased by +18K to +79K in the week to Sept. 18 – this is the highest level of “short” positions in four-months.

Pound bid

The pound trades higher this morning, both against the dollar and the euro, reversing some of the losses it made on Friday after E.U leaders rejected U.K PM Theresa May’s Brexit deal proposal and May reiterating in a speech that a no-deal scenario was better than a bad deal.

GBP/USD (£1.3152) remains handcuffed to Brexit rhetoric and PM May woes and has reclaimed the psychological £1.31 handle after comments this morning from U.K Brexit Minister Raab indicated that he is confident he will make progress on Brexit.

There are also whispers that PM May has started contingency planning for possible snap election in November – however, Raab reiterated that “no election is planned.”

Fed and trade threats to drive markets

Monday September 24: Five things the markets are talking about

Global equities are under pressure as China called off planned trade talks with U.S, potentially triggering an escalation in the tariff war between the world’s largest economies.

Note: U.S’ tariffs on +$200B in China goods took effect at midnight, while China’s counter tariffs on +$60B of U.S goods also came into effect this morning.

Presidents Trumps’ veiled threat to OPEC to increase global crude supply was met with a tepid response over the weekend. The Saudi oil minister said that the market was adequately supplied.

The ‘big’ dollar continues to find support on pullbacks, while Treasuries trade under pressure along with Euro sovereign bonds.

Topping investors’ agenda this week is the FOMC meeting along with the Fed’s updated forecasts and the chair’s quarterly press conference (Sep 25-26). The market is looking for a third +25 bps rate hike and is pricing in another one for December. Investors await Fed chair Powell’s views on trade and tariffs.

Elsewhere, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ) will also meet Wednesday (Sept 26) and no rate hike is expected. The U.K posts its final estimate of Q2 GDP, while the Eurozone releases the September flash harmonized index of consumer prices (Sept 28). Also on Friday, Canada will release its monthly GDP data for July.

1. Stocks see red

Asian volumes were light and liquidity a concern as markets in China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan were closed for holidays. Both Hong Kong and South Korea will be closed on Tuesday.

Note: Despite Japanese markets closed, Japans Economy Minister Motegi and USTR Lighthizer are expected to hold trade talks today in New York. Japan is said to considering a bilateral trade agreement with the U.S.

Down-under, Aussie stocks edged lower overnight, as lower commodities prices hit materials stocks while financials slipped on new revelations of wrongdoing in the sector revealed in a quasi-judicial inquiry. The S&P/ASX 200 index fell -0.1% at the close of trade. The benchmark rose +0.4% on Friday.

In Hong Kong, stocks plummeted after the U.S imposed fresh tariffs on an additional +$200B of Chinese imports and as Beijing cancelled planned talks between the two sides. The Hang Seng Index fell -1.62%.

In Europe, regional bourses opened in the ‘red’ and continue to trade lower. Market risk sentiment continues to be impacted over trade concerns as U.S tariffs came into effect at midnight and China cancels trade talks – consumer discretionary sector among worst performers.

U.S stocks are set to open in the ‘red’ (-0.2%).

Indices: Stoxx50 -0.3% at 3,419, FTSE -0.1% at 7,480, DAX -0.3% at 12,389, CAC-40 -0.2% at 5,481, IBEX-35 -0.5% at 9,543, FTSE MIB -0.5% at 21,427, SMI % at , S&P 500 Futures -0.2%

2. OPEC, Russia reject Trump’s call for immediate boost to oil output

Yesterday in Algiers, both OPEC and Russia ruled out any immediate, additional increase in crude output, effectively rejecting Trump’s calls for action to “cool” the market.

The recent price rally has mainly stemmed from a decline in oil exports from OPEC member Iran due to fresh U.S sanctions.

Also, according to OPEC’s projections, a strong rise in non-OPEC production could exceed global demand growth, which could eventually put pressure on prices.

Oil prices remain better bid this Monday morning as U.S. markets tighten ahead of Washington’s plan to impose new sanctions against Iran.

Brent crude futures are at +$79.74 per barrel, up by +94c, or +1.2%. U.S West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude futures have rallied +74c, or +1.1%, to +$71.52 a barrel.

The market remains concerned about U.S inventory levels. U.S commercial crude oil inventories (EIA) are at their lowest level in three-years, and while output remains around the record of +11M bpd, recent subdued U.S drilling activity points towards a slowdown.

Gold prices have edged a tad lower this morning as the U.S dollar holds firm on news that China has cancelled trade talks with the U.S, while the market waits for this week’s FOMC meeting for guidance on future rate hikes. Spot gold is down -0.1% at +$1,198.36, after declining as much as -1.3% on Friday. U.S gold futures are little changed at +$1,201.60 an ounce.

3. HK interbank rates jump to 10-year highs after HKD surge

Some of the short-term rates banks in Hong Kong charge each other leapt to their highest levels in roughly a decade, in the first trading session after a sudden surge in the tightly controlled HKD.

Note: Speculators have been covering some significant ‘short’ HKD positions and the lack of liquidity has not helped the move.

The overnight HK interbank offered rate jumped +2% to +3.85%, it’s highest since 2007. One-month Hibor rose less sharply, but still reached nearly +2.17%. On Friday, HKD unexpectedly surged +0.42%, its biggest gain since 2003.

Note: The currency, which is pegged in a range of $7.75 to $7.85 to the U.S. dollar, was little changed at $7.8113.

Elsewhere, Italian government bond yields are backing up again this morning, again reflecting some unease among investors given this week’s deadline for the government to present its budget targets.

Note: ECB’s Mario Draghi speaks at the European Parliament later today, while on Wednesday; the Fed is expected to raise interest rates again.

Two-year Italian bond yields are up +4.5 bps on the day at +0.81%, while the ten-year yields are +3.5 bps higher at +2.87%. The gap over benchmark German Bunds yields have widened from Friday’s close at around +241 bps.

The yield on U.S 10-year Treasuries has increased +1 bps to +3.07%. In Germany, the 10-year Bund yield has rallied less than +1 bps to +0.47%, while in the U.K, the 10-year Gilt yield has climbed +1 bps to +1.563%.

4. Dollar hold firms, but G7 does find some support

GBP/USD (£1.3123) remains handcuffed to Brexit rhetoric and PM May woes. Sterling has begun Monday’s session on the front foot, reclaiming the psychological £1.31 handle after comments from U.K Brexit Minister Raab indicated that he is confident he will make progress on Brexit. There are also whispers that PM May has started contingency planning for possible snap election in November – however, Raab reiterated that “no election is planned.”

The EUR (€1.1770) is again wading towards the key €1.18 handle. Consensus does not expect this week’s data or monetary policy decisions to mount a serious challenge to the ‘single unit’s recent rally. The FOMC meeting is due on Wednesday, but a +25 bps increase to +2.25% is already priced into EUR/USD. The government in Italy is expected to roll out new fiscal projections, but the 2019 budget deficit will probably be set at close to +2% of GDP, which is similar to where the deficit stands now. While eurozone inflation data later this week should provide the euro with “minor support.”

The INR continues to weaken; with the USD/INR rallying to an intraday high of $72.73. There have been rumours that Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has intervened to cap dollar gains. Trade concerns continue to weigh as China cancels trade talks with the U.S.

5. German business sentiment slipped in September

Ifo data this morning showed that German business sentiment slipped this month following a sharp rise in August, as companies slightly lowered their business outlooks.

The Ifo business climate index decreased to 103.7 from an upwardly revised 103.9 in August, but still beat forecasts. The street had been looking for a decline to 103.2.

“Despite growing uncertainty, the German economy remains robust,” said Ifo president Clemens Fuest.

In manufacturing, managers were less content with the current situation in September compared with the month before. Business expectations, however, hit their highest level since February.

“Manufacturers plan to ramp up production in the months ahead,” according to the Ifo Institute.

Forex heatmap

US Dollar Recovers Ground Ahead of Fed Meeting

The US dollar bounced back on Friday, but could not offset the losses suffered during the week. The greenback was lower against most major pairs at the end of five days. Traders adjusted their positions before the weekend giving some breathing room to the USD.

The U.S. Federal Reserve will host its two-day meeting on Tuesday and Wednesday. The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) statement will be published at 2:00 pm EDT followed by a press conference by Fed Chair Jerome Powell at 2:30 pm EDT.

A rate lift by the US central bank is highly anticipated and has been priced in to the dollar putting more focus on the words of the Fed chief.

Euro Appreciates as US Trade War Fears Soften

The EUR/USD surged 1.05 percent this week. The single currency is trading at 1.1743 after a late recovery attempt by the USD on Friday.



The Trump administration unveiled the second round of tariffs against Chinese goods on Monday but as more details came out an all out trade war can still be averted.

Despite the rhetoric market participants are optimistic about a resolution that will not have a negative impact on global growth.

German data and EU inflation will be released this week. German confidence has improved of late and forecasts show that trend will continue but European inflation early results are not expected to have gained traction. The EUR has recovered from political uncertainty earlier in the year, but investors will look at fundamentals for guidance.

Canadian Inflation Lifts Probabilities of an October Rate Hike

The USD/CAD fell 0.92 percent in the last five days. The currency pair is trading at 1.2921 after various phases of NAFTA jitters have helped and pressured the loonie. The Canadian currency gained on a weekly basis against a softening greenback.

US-China trade rhetoric hast lost some traction, and as JP Morgan CEO Jamie Dimon put it, it’s more like a skirmish than a war.


Canadian dollar weekly graph September 17, 2018

NAFTA optimism remains high, but officials from both sides have begun to trade sound bites as frustrations mount.

US White House Chief Economic Advisor Kevin Hasset said in a TV interview that the US could forge ahead with the Mexico only trade deal. The US has been trying to get Canada to join the quick agreement made with Mexico, but so far the negotiations have not been as smooth.

Canadian Foreign Minister wrapped up her Washington visit on Thursday with the Quebec elections on October 1 an important day if dairy concessions are given as part of the NAFTA renegotiation.

Canadian monthly GDP data will be released on Friday September 28, with a forecast of 0.1 percent. The stronger pace earlier in the year and with inflation above target will pressure the Bank of Canada (BoC) to lift rates in October. Probabilities of a 25 basis points hike are at 88.74 percent.

Oil Ends Week Higher with OPEC Meeting to Provide Guidance

Oil prices rose ahead of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) meeting in Algiers in a week that included supply concerns and pressure from US President Trump to keep prices low.


West Texas Intermediate graph

The production cut agreement by the OPEC and other major producers has been the most important factor in the stabilization of crude prices since the 2014 drop.

Supply disruptions have kept prices in current ranges even as the OPEC and partners such as Russia will be discussing ramping up production.

The biggest disruption to supply this year has come from the reapplication of US sanctions against Iranian exports. Global producers that are part of the supply curb have telegraphed their intentions but weather and geopolitical factors have been offset with global growth and energy demand forecast downgrades.

Weekly US inventories threw another drawdown data point on Wednesday and have kept the black stuff bid. President Trump has used twitter as a macro policy tool and this time his aim fell on the OPEC.

The organization has limited options and will look to Saudi Arabia for leadership as some members have pressured internally to increase production for their own national interests.

This time the US is mixing political and economic factors to force an increase in supply, even though the White House is the one who triggered the latest disruption.

Yellow Metal Loses Shine on Friday Looks Ahead to Fed Rate Hike

Gold was lower on Friday by 0.65 percent, but gains earlier in the week still managed to put it in the black with a 0.19 percent gain.

The safe haven appeal of the yellow metal was lower as US stock markets continued their rally stoked by improving economic data in America.



The Fed’s imminent rate hike is keeping gold close to the $1,200 price level and the Swiss franc is now the de facto refuge for investors.

With a 25 basis points fully priced in from the Fed metal investors will be focusing on the economic projections and any changes in the wording of the statement looking for clues on the rate hike path of the central bank.

Market events to watch this week:

Monday, September 24
4:00am EUR German Ifo Business Climate
Tuesday, September 25
10:00am USD CB Consumer Confidence
9:00pm NZD ANZ Business Confidence
Wednesday, September 26
10:30am USD Crude Oil Inventories
2:00pm USD FOMC Economic Projections
2:00pm USD FOMC Statement
2:00pmUSD Federal Funds Rate
2:30pm USD FOMC Press Conference
5:00pm NZD Official Cash Rate
6:00pm NZD RBNZ Press Conference
Thursday, September 27
8:30am USD Core Durable Goods Orders m/m
8:30amUSD Final GDP q/q
Friday, September 28
4:30am GBP Current Account
8:30am CAD GDP m/m

*All times EDT
For a complete list of scheduled events in the forex market visit the MarketPulse Economic Calendar

Canada retail sales climb, inflation falls, CAD rallies

Canadian retail sales climbed in July following a decline in June, led by demand for food and higher gas prices.

Stats Canada said retail sales rose +0.3% in July to a seasonally adjusted C$50.9B.

Note: In June, retail sales fell by a revised -0.1%.

Ex-autos, July sales rose by a robust +0.9%, despite a decline of -2.2% at new car dealerships weighing on the overall results. However, on a price-adjusted basis, sales fell -0.1%. On a year-over-year basis, retail sales in July rose +3.7%.

Canada inflation slows in August

On the inflation front, it decelerated in Canada last month, but remained close to its seven-year high print from July. This headline print very much keeps the Bank of Canada (BoC) in play for another +25 bps hike in October.

Stats Canada said that CPI rose +2.8% y/y in August, following a +3.0% increase in July.

Digging deeper, core-inflation prices rose in a range from +2.0% to +2.2%, based on the three preferred gauges used by the BoC.

CAD initial reaction saw the loonie catch a bid, to deal at C$1.28864 a new weekly high.

Central Banks up the ante to normalize interest rates

Friday September 21: Five things the markets are talking about

Aside from trade, tariff and retaliation, central banks are upping the ante to “normalize” interest rates.

This week, Norway’s Norges Bank has joined the BoE, and the central banks of the Czech Republic and Romania in withdrawing some of its stimulus, while Sweden’s Riksbank has indicated that it may raise its key rate before the end of the year. The ECB plans to end QE this December, while next week the Fed is expected to hike +25 bps (Sep 26) – the market will be looking for any comments on the impact of escalating trade tensions.

Earlier this week the BoJ kept its stimulus policy unchanged, however, the move overnight to cut the purchases of super long-bonds would suggest that the period of easy-money era is ending. In Hong Kong, the HKD has surged the most in 15-years in part due to the prospect for higher interest rates there.

There are a number of EM hotspots that the market is also focusing on, in particular – Turkey & South Africa. The lack of details on how Turkey can achieve a soft landing for an economy that topped the G20 growth charts in 2017/18 continues to contribute to a volatile TRY, but a plan is forthcoming.

While in South Africa this morning, President Ramaphosa announced details of a stimulus package to take immediate effect to battle the country’s technical recession.

With trade war concerns receding in the background, the U.S dollar is on track to close out the week trading atop of its seven-month lows against G10 currency pairs as stronger equity markets and rising bond yields encourage investors to purchase riskier assets.

Note: Expect today’s session to be volatile as its quadruple witching – futures and options on indexes and individual stocks expire.

On tap: Canadian CPI and retail sales at 08:30 am EDT

1. Stocks rally to records

With Wall Street indexes hitting a record high again yesterday has encouraged Asian and Euro bourses to take flight.

In Japan, equities rallied to an eight-month high, with noted gains in insurance, energy, and shipping stocks. The Nikkei did fade late, but still gained +0.8%. Financials were helped by the BoJ’s offer to buy less super-long bonds. The broader Topix gained +0.9% to hit a four-month high.

Down-under, the Aussie stock market again underperformed in the region overnight. The S&P/ASX 200 finished up +0.4%. The index ticked up +0.5% for the week, a second consecutive modest gain. Providing intraday pressure were utilities, which lost -0.5% last night, but consumer staples rallied that much while materials jumped a further +1.5% and IT climbed +2.2%. In S. Korea, the Kospi closed +0.68% higher on Friday as investors risk appetite recovered. For the week, the benchmark index climbed +0.9%.

In China, stocks surged overnight before a long holiday weekend, with investor sentiment boosted by hopes that a government effort to boost domestic demand could help offset effects of an escalating trade war. At the close, the blue-chip CSI300 index rallied +3.0%, its biggest one-day gain in four-months. The Shanghai Composite Index gained +2.5%, closing out its best week in six months.

In Hong Kong, stocks ended higher for a fourth consecutive session overnight, helped by consumer and technology shares, as sentiment improved after the Sino-U.S trade war unfolded in ways less damaging than feared. The Hang Seng index ended +1.73% higher, while the China Enterprises Index closed +2.17% firmer.

In Europe, regional bourses continue to rise despite sluggish PMI results. In the U.K, the FTSE is supported by positive Brexit comments, while in Italy; bourses are supported by budget talks.

Note: Expect stock markets to be influenced by today’s quadruple witching hour.

U.S stocks are set to open in the ‘black’ (+0.1%).

Indices: Stoxx50 +0.7% at 3,428, FTSE +0.8% at 7,429, DAX +0.7% at 12,418, CAC-40 +0.8% at 5,494, IBEX-35 +0.6% at 9,639, FTSE MIB +0.9% at 21,588, SMI

2. Oil higher on supply worries, but Trump’s call for lower prices drags

Oil prices are a tad higher this morning after falling in yesterday’s session as U.S President Donald Trump urged OPEC to lower crude prices at its meeting in Algeria this weekend (Sep 23).

Note: OPEC and its allies are scheduled to meet on Sunday to discuss how to allocate supply increases to offset a shortage of Iran supplies due to U.S sanctions.

Brent crude for November delivery is up +26c, or +0.33%, at +$78.96 a barrel, while
U.S West Texas Intermediate crude for October delivery is up +7c, or +0.10% at +$70.39 a barrel.

Trump took to twitter and called on OPEC to lower prices, saying, “they would not be safe for very long without us, and yet they continue to push for higher and higher oil prices”.

Trump’s veiled threats are unlikely to force OPEC and its allies to agree to an official increase in crude output on Sunday.

The fact that Sino-U.S trade tensions have somewhat dissipated is helping precious metal prices. Ahead of the U.S open, gold prices remain better bid on the back of a weaker U.S dollar and are heading for its first weekly gain in a month. Spot gold is up +0.3% at +$1,210.68, after touching its highest since Sept. 13 at +$1,211.02. It has rallied +1.3% so far this week. U.S gold futures are up +0.3% at +$1,215 per ounce.

3. Italian bond yields fall as investors await budget clarity

Italian bond yields are under some pressure this morning as the market awaits clarity on the 2019 budget and after the 5-Star Movement denied a report that Deputy PM Di Maio had threatened to pull his party out of the government.

An ISTAT report shows that the budget deficit as a proportion of national output was slightly higher last year than previously estimated, but that debt was lower also helped to push down yields.

Italian BTP yields are down -5 bps along the curve, having jumped by up to +12 bps yesterday. Elsewhere, Germany’s 10-year Bund yield has eased to +0.47% as some Euro investors returned to safe-haven assets.

Note: Bunds backed up to a four-month high of +0.506% Wednesday, but have struggled to maintain this level, rallying back down after renewed Brexit concerns and the infighting in the Italian government.

In Japan, the Bank of Japan (BoJ) has cut its purchase of super long JGB’s. This has send Japanese yields to 2018 highs. The 40-year yield has jumped +5 bps to +1.04% while 10’s gained +1.5 bp to +0.13%.

Stateside, the yield on 10-year Treasuries has jumped + 2 bps to +3.08%, the highest in more than four-months.

4. Hong Kong dollar spikes

Expectations of a rise in bank lending rates and tightness in cash supplies caused a sharp spike in HKD overnight, pulling it off the weak end of its narrow trading band it had been stuck in for the six-months.

The HKD rallied to $7.8244, hitting its highest levels since late February. Since March, it had stayed near $7.85, the lower end of the Hong Kong Monetary Authority’s (HKMA) managed trading band.

USD/INR rose to an intraday high of $72.47 before fading after a sharp spike lower in Indian Indices on liquidity concerns of Indian Housing name Dewan Housing.

ZAR (+0.46% to $14.2629) found support after S. African President Ramaphosa announced a number of policy reform plans this morning, including re-prioritising +$3.5B of public spending to boost economic growth and create jobs.

GBP/USD (£1.3185) falls from yesterday’s highs as the E.U warns the U.K of a possible “no-deal” Brexit. Initial support is around £1.3171.

5. Euro zone business growth eased

Data this morning showed that Euro zone business growth eased this month although optimism picked up a tad from last month’s two-year low.

Nevertheless, growth remained robust and firms were able to increase prices, which should keep the ECB happy.

Digging deeper, there remains a divergence between services and manufacturing – the dominant service industry beat forecasts for no change in the pace of growth from last month. IHS Markit’s Euro Zone Services Flash Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) rose to 54.7 from 54.4.

Manufacturers however failed to live up to expectations. The factory PMI slumped to a two-year low of 53.3 from 54.6 – the market was looking for 54.4.

Divergence raises the question, how long can you maintain a strong service sector growth without an upbeat manufacturing sector?

Forex heatmap