Pat Buchanan Sees A ‘Never-Trump’ Press In Near-Panic

Authored by Patrick Buchanan via Buchanan.org,

“All the News That’s Fit to Print” proclaims the masthead of The New York Times. “Democracy Dies in Darkness,” echoes The Washington Post.

“The people have a right to know,” the professors at Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism hammered into us in 1962. “Trust the people,” we were admonished.

Explain then this hysteria, this panic in the press over the release of a four-page memo detailing one congressional committee’s rendering of how Trump-hate spawned an FBI investigation of Republican candidate and President Donald Trump.

What is the press corps afraid of? For it has not ceased keening and caterwauling that this memo must not see the light of day.

Do the media not trust the people? Can Americans not handle the truth?

Is this the same press corps that celebrates “The Post,” lionizing Kay Graham for publishing the Pentagon Papers, top-secret documents charging the “Best and the Brightest” of the JFK-LBJ era with lying us into Vietnam?

Why are the media demanding a “safe space” for us all, so we will not be harmed by reading or hearing what the memo says?

Security secrets will be compromised, we are warned.

Really? Would the House Intelligence Committee majority vote to expose secrets that merit protection? Would Speaker Paul Ryan and White House chief of staff Gen. John Kelly, who have read and approved the release of the memo, go along with that?

Is Gen. Kelly not a proven patriot, many times over?

The committee’s ranking Democrat, Adam Schiff, who earlier warned of a threat to national security, now seems ready to settle for equal time. If the majority memo is released, says Schiff, the minority version of events should be released.

Schiff is right. It should be, along with the backup behind both.

This week, however, FBI Director Chris Wray and Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein slipped into the White House to plead with Kelly to keep the Republican memo secret. Wednesday, both went public to warn the White House against doing what Trump said he was going to do.

This is defiant insubordination. And it is not unfair to ask if Rosenstein and Wray are more alarmed about some threat to the national security than they are about the exposure of misconduct in their own agencies.

The memo is to be released Friday. Leaks suggest what it contends:

That the Russiagate investigation of Trump was propelled by a “dossier” of lies and unproven allegations of squalid conduct in Moscow and Trumpian collusion with Russia.

Who prepared the dossier?

The leading dirt-diver hired by the Clinton campaign, former British spy Christopher Steele. In accumulating his Russian dirt, Steele was spoon-fed by old comrades in the Kremlin’s security apparatus.

Not only did the FBI use this dirt to launch a full investigation of Trump, the bureau apparently used it to convince a FISA court judge to give the FBI a warrant to surveil and wiretap the Trump campaign.

If true, the highest levels of the FBI colluded with a British spy digging dirt for Hillary to ruin the opposition candidate, and, having failed, to bring down an elected president.

Is this not something we have a right to know? Should it be covered up to protect those at the FBI who may have engaged in something like this?

“Now they are investigating the investigators!” comes the wail of the media. Well, yes, they are, and, from the evidence, about time.

In this divided capital, there are warring narratives.

The first is that Trump was compromised by the Russians and colluded with them to hack the DNC and Clinton campaign to destroy her candidacy. After 18 months, the FBI and Robert Mueller probes have failed to demonstrate this.

The second narrative is now ascendant. It is this:

In mid-2016, James Comey and an FBI cabal, including Deputy Director Andrew McCabe, lead investigator Peter Strzok and his FBI paramour Lisa Page, decided Clinton must not be indicted in the server scandal, as that would make Trump president.

So they colluded and put the fix in.

This alleged conspiracy is being investigated by the FBI inspector general. His findings may explain last week’s sudden resignation of McCabe and last summer’s ouster of Strzok from the Mueller probe.

If true, this conspiracy to give Hillary a pass on her “gross negligence” in handling secrets, and take down Trump based on dirt dug up by hirelings of the Clinton campaign would make the Watergate break-in appear by comparison to be a prank.

Here we may have hit the reason for the panic in the media.

Trump-haters in the press may be terrified that the memo may credibly demonstrate that the “Deplorables” were right, that the elite media have been had, that they were exploited and used by the “deep state,” that they let their detestation of Trump so blind them to reality that they made fools of themselves, and that they credited with high nobility a major conspiracy to overthrow an elected president of the United States.

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Bill Blain: “I Can Detect A Shift In The Market”

Submitted by Bill Blain of Mint Partners

Bond Yields Rising, Stock Market hesitant? Its fine.. And Groundhog Day for Deutsche

In Bonds there is Truth: the US 30-yr bond is over 3% – while the 10-yr bellweather hovers round 2.80%, looking likely to test the next big number. Yet, the bond market continues to pump out new supply… What will today’s US payrolls tell us? It’s just one number among billions of pieces of information floating out there… but, hey, its something we can worry about this morning.

Meanwhile, there are plenty of talking heads warning us the outlook for stocks is mixed. This morning’s Big Miss from Deutsche Bank (wow.. what a surprise.. (US readers sarcasm alert)) caps what’s looking the worst week for European stocks since the summer – although they are not even down 3%, to put it in perspective!

Meanwhile, its all about the big names in the US. Alphabet slipped – looking like investors aren’t convinced by its mix of brands from Google to YouTube. Bloomberg says its costs that disappoint; but did you know that it authorised a $8,589,869,056 stock buyback – its a “perfect number” – equal to the sum of all its divisors. Fascinating. Apple posts record numbers, and despite some complex management explanations sales have slipped, revenues are lower, while there is the implied promise of stock buybacks and acquisitions. Facebook admitted its News Flow is putting customers off – NSS Sherlock award (and no one under 50 apparently uses it anymore) – but the stock is up.  

It’s no wonder stock pickers are getting antsy.

They look at stretched valuations, signs the market is overbought, and fret about signals the market has topped. Sitting here watching, it does feels like sentiment is changing. Investors are getting selective. The last few months have felt like they have been chasing the market – buying at whatever level they can in pursuit of a runaway market. This week I can detect a shift – folk are looking to pick the winners and losers again. The return of some rationality, combined with a complacency check, might just see this market pause – but that’s not a bad thing.

Rising bond yields should be a bigger threat?

Being somewhat confused by it all I asked my Macro Guru, Martin Malone, what’s going on and why rising bond yields aren’t causing much more concern.

He explained it all in terms of market structure. Over the past 10-years the bond market has doubled in size to $20 trillion. However, the risk assets economy – think “stuff”, property and stocks – have risen to $80 trillion – 4x the size of the bond market. Therefore, a 5% gain in risk assets adds 4 trillion to risk asserts, while a 5% loss in bonds is only $1 trillion. In fact its even more complex than the simple math.

A good number of clients have told me recently they are increasingly concerned this US growth phase is running out of steam and we will be into economic slowdown as early as Q4 this year, triggering the end of this frothy global alignment of growth drivers.

Martin’s watching macro like a hawk – and he’s happy yield curves, Domar spreads (NGDP-10-yr), real rates, employment, Central Bank balance sheets, and the alignment of positive global macro remains very much on track. He says: “The Bear Bond moves is a GOOD RATE RISE – supporting macro economic conditions as well as wider financial markets.”

Martin’s got the benefit of his Alphabook Macro Machine. He and his chums have built a deep delving AI, learning from over 5 million Macro factors – using the numbers to illustrate what’s going on in surprising ways and informative ways. To get his Alphabook research – it’s a cost… but absolutely worth every penny. Happy to send him your way if you want to understand why your fears might be unjustified. 

Today, I am told is Groundhog day. The classic film where Bill Murray is caught in a timeloop. Bit like Deutsche Bank. Reporting another annual loss, crashing revenue, and a CEO finding crumbs to tell us how much better its all getting. “We believe we are firmly on the path to producing growth and higher returns……..” If I had more time, I’d deep dive the numbers, read all the reports, and come to some sage conclusions, but since I don’t I’ll just pose the question about the definition of lunacy.

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Dollar Spikes Most In Over A Year, But…

Strong ‘headline’ earnings growth (despite all the caveats) has sparked a hawkish tilt to trading sending bond yields higher and spiking the dollar index by the most since Jan 2017.

There’s just one thing though…

The 0.9% spike in the dollar index is the most since January 18th 2017 and sounds impressive, but for a trader, it appears the spike is for fading as it hits the Trump Rescue highs and rolls over…

So the strongest wage growth in years merely enabled machines to run some stops before the trend lower continues?

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90 feared dead as migrant boat capsizes off Libya, most Pakistani

An estimated 90 migrants are feared to have drowned off the coast of Libya after a smuggler’s boat capsized early today, leaving three known survivors and ten bodies washed up on shore, the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) said.

Survivors told aid workers that most of the migrants on board were Pakistanis, who form a growing group heading to Italy from North Africa, IOM spokeswoman Olivia Headon said.

“They have given an estimate of 90 people who drowned during the capsize, but we still need to verify the exact number of people who lost their lives during the tragedy,” Headon, speaking from Tunis, told a Geneva news briefing.

“What has been reported to us is that it’s mostly Pakistanis who were on board the boat, but we still need to verify the nationalities and how many from what country,” she said.

Ten bodies have washed up on Libyan shores, two of them known to be Libyans and eight Pakistanis, she said.

“I believe the Libyan coastguard is looking for other survivors off the coast,” Headon added.

Read: Over 13,000 migrants repatriated from Libya this month

Another IOM spokesman, Leonard Doyle, told Reuters Television that the boat was believed to have left shore yesterday before capsizing early on Friday morning.

Earlier security officials in the western Libyan town of Zuwara said two Libyans and one Pakistani had been rescued from the boat. They said ten bodies had been recovered, mostly Pakistani, but gave no further information.

Libya is the main gateway for migrants trying to cross to Europe by sea, though numbers have dropped sharply since July as Libyan factions and authorities – under pressure from Italy and the European Union – have begun to block departures.

More than 600,000 people are believed to have made the journey from Libya to Italy over the past four years.

Prior to Friday’s incident, some 6,624 migrants are believed to have arrived in Europe by sea so far this year and a further 246 have died, according to IOM figures.

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Qatar: ‘Ready to participate’ in US-Gulf summit

Qatar is ready to participate in the United States-Gulf Cooperation Council summit due in May provided the blockading countries’ have real will to solve the current crisis and “not coercion”, Qatari Foreign Minister Mohammed Bin Abdulrahman Bin Jassim Al Thani announced yesterday.

Speaking at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington DC, Al Thani said: “Qatar is still open for a dialogue, supports the Kuwaiti Emir’s initiative and will attend the US-brokered meeting in Camp David.”

On Tuesday, US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson called on all the Gulf countries “to de-escalate tensions and work to counter terrorism as well as Iran’s influence in the region.”

“Any solution to the dispute between the GCC countries must be premised on the principles of equality between the nations of the region,” Al Thani said.

“No one can be forced to start dialogue,” he stressed.

Qatar will never re-gain the same strong relations with the blockading countries… Trust between us [GCC countries] has been lost.

“Qatar hopes that the GCC can be rebuilt,” he added, noting that “some of the regional countries’ governments are based on repressing their people.”

Read: Qatar agrees to financial disclosures in spat with US carriers

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Obama State Dept Secretly Distributed Its Own “Dossier” To Undermine Trump, FOIA Docs Reveal

Watchdog group Judicial Watch released 42 pages of heavily redacted State Department documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), which reveal that the Obama State Department provided Senator Ben Cardin (D-MD) a “dossier of classified information on Russia” in order to undermine President Trump, according to Judicial Watch President Tom Fitton.

These documents show the Obama State Department under John Kerry gathered and sent its own dossier of classified information on Russia to Senator Ben Cardin, a political ally in the U.S. Senate, to undermine President Trump,” said Judicial Watch President Tom Fitton. “Judicial Watch will pursue information on who pulled this classified information, who authorized its release, and why was it evidently dumped just days before President Trump’s inauguration.”

The documents show Russian political interference in elections and politics in countries across Europe.

According to a March 2017 report in the Baltimore Sun: “Maryland Sen. Ben Cardin received classified information about Russia’s involvement in elections when the Obama administration was attempting to disseminate that material widely across the government in order to aid in future investigations, according to a report Wednesday … Obama officials were concerned, according to the report [in The New York Times], that the Trump administration would cover up intelligence once power changed hands.” –Judicial Watch

In March 2017, Former Obama Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, Evelyn Farkas, made some stunning admissions during an interview with MSNBC’s Mika Brzezinski.

While discussing the mad scramble by the Obama administration to collect and preserve intelligence on alleged Russian election hacking before Obama left office, it appears that Farkas accidentally implicated the Obama White House in the surveillance of Trump’s campaign staff:

The Trump folks, if they found out how we knew what we knew about the Trump staff dealing with Russians, that they would try to compromise those sources and methods, meaning we would not longer have access to that intelligence. –Evelyn Farkas

Furthermore, Farkas effectively corroborated the March New York Times article which cited “Former American officials” as their anonymous source regarding efforts to leak this surveillance on the Trump team to Democrats across Washington DC.

I became very worried because not enough was coming out into the open and I knew that there was more. We have very good intelligence on Russia. So then I had talked to some of my former colleagues and I knew they were trying to also get information to the hill.

That’s why you have the leaking. Evelyn Farkas

 

Farkas resigned from the Obama administration in September of 2015 – begging the question as to how she knew so much about what the previous administration and intelligence community was up to. 

Trump Tower

A section of the documents obtained by Judicial Watch is titled “Pro-Kremlin NGOs and Think Tanks,” refers to “the Russian government funded Caucasus Research Network, which helped to spread anti-EU and NATO reports throughout the region. Also discussed is the Human Rights Accountability Global Initiative, which was founded by Natalia Veselnitskaya. The Initiative was reportedly “working to erode support for the Magnitsky Act (which imposes sanctions on … gross human rights violations). The organization screened an anti-Magnitsky film at Washington’s Newseum in June.”

Veselnitskaya infamously obtained a meeting with Donald Trump Jr. through associates of opposition research firm Fusion GPS, wherein she attempted to discuss the Magnitsky act before Trump Jr. shut down the meeting. 

The Magnitsky Act attracted public attention earlier this year when it was reported Veselnitskaya obtained a meeting with Donald Trump Jr. with the purpose of seeking to undermine the act. It was reported that Russian President Vladimir Putin wanted to repeal the act at least in part because it targeted top Russian officials who had committed human rights violations and were the beneficiaries of a $230-million tax fraud that Magnitsky exposed. –Judicial Watch

View the Judicial Watch release below:

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Kunstler: The FBI Has Some ‘Splaining To Do

Authored by James Howard Kunstler via Kunstler.com,

It’s beginning to look a little like The Day the Earth Stood Still out there, with Devin Nunes in the Klaatu role, roiling the Earthlings into a frothy hysteria as they attempt to defend their puny empire of errand boys, grocery clerks, and elected buffoons. At dawn’s early light, we await The Memo.

The New York Times was running veritable Chinese fire drills on its front page this morning denouncing The Memo in advance, shrieking about the end of the Republic, with the laughable caveat that… “None of this is to say the F.B.I. and the rest of the federal law enforcement apparatus should be immune from criticism or reform.” The Times editorial did not go into any detail about what exactly might invite that reform — like perhaps one top-rank agent telling another one that the “loathsome” president had to be gotten rid of at all costs.

The casual observer — say, one who is immune to the charms of Donald J. Trump — can’t fail to notice that there is a bit more smoke emanating from the upper echelons of the FBI than has yet been seen in the sludgy narrative called “Russian Meddling in the 2016 Election.” Going into two years of that yarn, not one concrete detail has emerged. Meddled how? For all the “we now know” talking points uttered by Grand Inquisitor Rachel Maddow, it seems to me that we now know next to nothing about “collusion” between Russians and Trump, while we know a great deal about the indelicate behavior of FBI officers in important positions with grave responsibilities — government agents with the power to wreck lives — who cooked up an enormous hysteria in the body politic.

The situation certainly puts the nation in a quandary. An uncouth and ridiculous President called forth to battle a vicious, dishonest, bureaucracy and in particular its gigantic, out-of-control “security” apparatus, which appears to have been hijacked by politically interested parties — namely, the minions of Hillary Clinton. You have been reminded here before that history is the supreme prankster. In Fourth Turning terms, the poor old disintegrating USA pined for a “gray champion” and all it got was this booby prize: a Manhattan real estate schmikler with a mean streak. Well, that’s how things roll in a long emergency. And this might only be the beginning of it.

In any case, it appears that the FBI, in the hallowed words of Ricky Ricardo, has got some ‘splainin’ to do. Recall, it was not so long ago that the FBI was run by a cross-dressing maniac addicted to blackmail, so let’s not act as if the agency was something that the Lord Yahweh brought into being on the fifth day of creation, after the lobsters and the cockateels. Granted, J. Edgar Hoover was a hard act to follow, but we are now, evidently, living in an age of even lower men (and women, to be fair).

CNN reminded viewers relentlessly last night that The Memo was sure to be a disappointment, a “nothingburger,” for a nation that expects a righteous half-pound beef patty with lettuce, tomato, pickle, and special sauce on a sesame bun. Personally, I expect something more like a three-day-old dead carp in a plain brown wrapper. Maybe “the Resistance” will try to make gefilte fish out of it, which is a burger of sorts: chopped meat, anyway.

Meanwhile, we await the report of DOJ Inspector General Michael Horowitz, who has been rooting around in the same burger den as the House and Senate committees, questioning the same cast of characters. The DOJ report is liable to be more damaging than The Memo. The whole nasty gumball of suspicion and innuendo seems destined to climax in a constitutional crisis.

 

Ludicrous as it seems — like some rogue army out of the stupid Star Wars epic — the “Resistance” bethinks itself the nation’s savior. In the best American tradition, they’ll burn the joint down in order to save it.

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Yellen Starts Work At Brookings Institution On Monday

A glitch in the monetary matrix?

Fed watchers will recall that shortly after he departed the Fed to make way for Janet Yellen, Ben Bernanke first joined the Brookings Institution in DC (before also joining PIMCO and Citadel as an advisor), where he became blogger emeritus. Fast forward a little over three years, when deja vu has hit, and as Steve Liesman reported moments ago, Janet Yellen – who is still technically employed by the Fed until this weekend – will begin work Monday morning as a distinguished fellow at the Hutchins Center on Fiscal and Monetary Policy at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC.

In heading to Brookings, Yellen follows in the steps of former Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke and former vice chairman Donald Kohn, along with former top Fed staffer Nellie Liang.

Yellen, 71, spent 17 years in the Federal Reserve system, including four as chair, four as vice chair, three as a Federal Reserve governor and six as San Francisco Fed president.

In addition to blogging, what will Yellen do at Brookings?

The Hutchins Center seeks to “improve the quality and efficacy of fiscal and monetary policies and public understanding of them,” according to the Brookings website

We doubt, however, that Brookings will be eager to distribute such Yellen op-eds as “no financial crisis in our lifetime.”

It was not immediately clear if Yellen would also follow Bernanke in his more profitable ventures, and advise PIMCO how to trade Treasury derivatives, or frontrun retail traders at Citadel’s HFT trading desk.

 

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Massive Crypto Rebound Sends Bitcoin Back To Unchanged

Update 1055ET: While it remains an ugly week…

 

Cryptocurrencies have ripped back higher in the last 3 hours, smashing Bitcoin back up to unchanged on the day…

*  *  *

Update 0815ET: Just as we saw at yesterday’s US stock market close, dip-buyers just stepped in to Bitcoin in a significant way, lifting the crypto currency over $1000 off the lows and back above $8000…

But the carnage remains… for now…

 

Notably, another exchange – BitMEX is down…

 

*  *  *

It seemed like just yesterday that every cryptocurrency bloodbath would be promptly bought, often sending the price of bitcoin and its peers to new record highs. Those days appear to be over, at least for now.

So far this year, cryptocurrencies have been beset with bad news: Bitfinex, by some accounts the world’s largest exchange, was recently subpoenaed by the CFTC, along with Tether, a separate corporate entity that involves many of the same people from Bitfinex, as questions mount about the authenticity of its tether token. Tethers, which are widely used by crypto traders to quickly move in and out of different crypto pairs, are supposed to be backed by dollars, with one tether = one dollar. But Tether’s decision to fire its auditor appears to validate the concerns of the exchange’s critics.

Raising fears about another massive, Mt. Gox-like hack, Coincheck, a mid-sized Japanese exchange, reported this month that it suffered “the biggest crypto theft in its history” when hackers made off with $400 million worth of NEM tokens. On Friday, Bloomberg reported that Japan’s Financial Services Agency raided Coincheck’s offices a week after the hack, hauling out documents and computers as evidence.

The inspection was conducted to ensure security for users, Finance Minister Taro Aso said. On Friday morning, 10 FSA officials entered Coincheck’s premises to gain a better understanding of how the exchange is operating in light of the regulator’s business improvement order imposed earlier this week, an agency official told reporters in Tokyo. The exchange has until Feb. 13 to produce a report detailing the causes of the incident.

And as if the threat of cybertheft wasn’t enough to scare off the marginal buyer, the threat of regulators trying to ban crypto – much like China did – has become a major concern. Regulators in India said explicitly declared yesterday that bitcoin is not legal tender and said it would take “all measures to eliminate their use,” foreshadowing a coming crackdown in a market that many hoped would one day grow to one of bitcoin’s largest. After a weekslong will-they-won’t-they back and forth, South Korea‘s Ministry of Justice announced revealed that it had abandoned a proposal to ban crypto outright, but instead seek to regulate it, requiring exchanges to obtain details about customer identities.

After bitcoin’s worst month in years, it dipped below $8,000 Friday morning in the US to levels it hasn’t seen since November while Ethereum, Ripple and Litecoin all took double-digit beatings.

btc

Meanwhile, as Bloomberg points out, bitcoin’s rough month was even worse in South Korea. As of Friday morning ET, bitcoin has dropped more than 60% from its January high in Korea as South Korea struggles with how to prevent money laundering and tax evasion without throttling the ecosystem.

The selloff has many Korea traders fearing the worst.

“The bubble in cryptocurrencies has burst” in Korea, said Yeol-mae Kim, an analyst at Eugene Investment & Securities Co. in Seoul. Because of the intense demand from retail buyers, bitcoin trades at what’s called “the kimchi premium” on SK exchanges. In January, the premium stretched to its widest level on record when bitcoin traded at $22,525 in Korea, $7,500 higher than the composite price at the time.

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Putin marks 75 years since Battle of Stalingrad victory

Author: 
AFP
Fri, 2018-02-02 18:43
ID: 
1517586593018690800

Volgograd: Russia on Friday marked 75 years since the Soviet Union’s victory in the major World War II Battle of Stalingrad, extolled as a symbol of the country’s resilience at a time when President Vladimir Putin campaigns for his fourth term.
Putin flew to Volgograd, the current name of the city, which staged a military parade involving about 1,500 troops, armored vehicles and jets flying over a crowd of spectators bundled up to protect against the sub-zero temperatures.
The 1942-43 battle in the Volga river city was one of the bloodiest in history. It was a disastrous loss for Nazi Germany, and is glorified by Russia as the event that saved Europe from Adolf Hitler.
“There was no other such battle in the history of mankind,” Putin told a crowd of veterans he met at the Volgograd philharmonic for a concert commemorating the event.
“The unified resistance and readiness for self-sacrifice were truly undefeatable, incomprehensible and frightful for the enemy.”
“Defenders of Stalingrad have passed a great heritage to us: love for the Motherland, readiness to protect its interests and independence, to stand strong in the face of any test,” he said, calling on Russians to measure up to their ancestors’ example.
To mark the occasion, traffic controllers in the city of a million people, one of the poorest in Russia, were dressed in Red Army winter uniforms, complete with felt boots.
Viktoria Rybakova, a 31-year-old dancer performing in the concert, said: “In everyone, there is gratitude for our future, for the fact that we are living today.”
Soviet victory and sacrifice in the war has been increasingly upheld by Moscow in recent years to stoke patriotism, which “has practically become a state ideology,” said political analyst Konstantin Kalachev.
Moscow needs positive symbols while ties with the West are at a post-Cold War low, so dates like war victory anniversaries are used to “promote the image of a country capable of accomplishments and defeating all of its enemies,” Kalachev said.
The anniversary comes less than two months before the March 18 presidential election, and Putin, who has been making near-daily trips to meet groups of workers and students, has also met with local youth at a historical exhibit which included a “virtual quest” of the battle, his website said.
It was his second World War II-associated trip in two weeks.
On January 18 Putin took part in an event marking the 75th anniversary of the lifting of the Siege of Leningrad outside Saint Petersburg.
The battle of Stalingrad began in July 1942 and lasted 200 days, with aerial bombardments that razed the city, and house-to-house fighting.
German troops of Marshal Friedrich Paulus eventually capitulated on February 2, 1943, in the first surrender by the Nazis since the war began. Paulus was captured alive and became a critic of the Nazi regime.
The city was completely rebuilt after the war and renamed Volgograd in 1961, eight years after the death of Joseph Stalin, following de-Stalinization reforms aiming to dismantle the dictator’s cult of personality.
In 2014, local lawmakers voted to rename the city back to Stalingrad on major war-related occasions six times a year.

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